COQUIMBO, Chile — Parts of this port city were a disaster zone Thursday after an 8.3-magnitude quake hit off the coast, killing at least 12 people and likely causing billions in damage. Overturned cars and splintered boats sat mud next to furniture, toppled adobe homes and fishing nets tangled in trees.
Dozens of smaller aftershocks rattled the country through the night. People sought safety in the streets of inland cities, while others along the shore took to their cars to race to higher ground.
Interior Minister Jorge Burgos said Thursday night that the death toll stood at 12 and five people were listed as missing.
The U.S. Geological Survey initially reported the quake at a preliminary magnitude of 7.9 but quickly revised the reading upward to 8.3. Chilean authorities put the magnitude at 8.4.
The most stunning thing about Wednesday night’s earthquake , however, may be the relatively low amount of havoc caused by such a powerful shake.
While the quake led more than 1 million to evacuate coastal areas and no doubt caused much anxiety, seismologists said Chile’s heavy investment in structural reinforcement of buildings and constant refinement of its tsunami alert system helped prevent what would have been a catastrophe in less prepared nations.
“Chile has good codes and good compliance, which together have reduced the vulnerabilities of their building stock over the decades,” said Richard Olson, director of Florida International University’s Extreme Events Institute. “I would rather be there in one of their cities than in many other countries in an earthquake .”
Living in one of the world’s most seismically active places, the Andean nation’s 17 million people have little choice but become experts in earthquakes. The strongest earthquake ever recorded happened in Chile: a magnitude-9.5 tremor in 1960 that killed more than 5,000 people.
BS News correspondent Kris Van Cleave reports tsunami warnings covered much of South America’s Pacific coast, Hawaii and 300 miles of the California coast. It turned out to be nothing serious, but there was a small ocean surge along the entire coast of California.
“I thought it was the end of the world and we were going to die,” said teary-eyed Manuel Moya, 38, sleeping with his wife on the ground outside their destroyed home in Illapel, 175 miles north of Santiago and 34 miles east of the quake’s epicenter. The town and surrounding areas have about 35,000 residents.
Moya said he and his wife were in bed and watching television when the quake hit. Fearing they would be killed if they remained inside, they ran outside in their underwear. By the end of the shaking, their home, made of concrete, had been reduced to rubble.
“They said it was a magnitude 8 but it felt like a 10,” said Moya, adding that neighbors had brought them clothes.
Speaking to the nation late Wednesday, President Michelle Bachelet urged people who had been evacuated to stay on high ground until authorities could fully evaluate the situation. Officials said schools would be closed in most of the country Thursday.
After another major earthquake in 1985, authorities began implementing strict construction codes similar to those used for highly seismic regions in the United States such as California, said Kishor Jaiswal, a civil engineer with the U.S. Geological Survey.
Most buildings in urban areas of Chile are designed to withstand both the vertical forces of gravity and the horizontal jolts that an earthquake inflicts. Building methods in many other developing countries can withstand gravity and wind but have limited resistance against very strong earthquakes.
Wednesday’s quake struck just offshore in the Pacific at 7:54 p.m. and was centered about 141 miles north-northwest of Santiago. The quake was 7.4 miles below the surface.
It lasted a nerve-shattering three minutes, swayed buildings in the capital, Santiago, and prompting authorities to issue a tsunami warning for the country’s entire Pacific coast. People sought safety in the streets of inland cities, while others along the shore took to their cars to race to higher ground. Several coastal towns were flooded from small tsunami waves.
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